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Understanding Namespaces

Namespaces in PHP are essential for encapsulating identifiers like classes, functions, and constants. They prevent name collisions and organize code more efficiently, particularly in applications where the same class names might be used in different parts of the project.

This example builds upon the 'Greeting' example from the previous page. It is advisable to familiarize oneself with the previous example before proceeding to ensure a full understanding of the content discussed here.

Example: Applying Namespaces to Avoid Conflicts

This section expands on the 'Greeting' example from the previous page by modifying the existing class to include a namespace and introducing another 'Greeting' class under a different namespace. This demonstrates how namespaces enhance modularity and prevent conflicts.

Step 1: Modifying the Existing Greeting Class

First, update the existing 'Greeting.php' file to include a namespace. This adjustment organizes the existing class within a specific context in the application, clarifying its role and grouping.

Update the 'Greeting.php' file as follows:

namespace FriendlyGreeting;

class Greeting {

    // Return a friendly greeting.
    function get_greeting($name) {
        $greeting = 'Hello '.$name.'. It\'s nice to see you!';
        return $greeting;


This update encapsulates the 'Greeting' class within the 'FriendlyGreeting' namespace, clearly signaling its positive, welcoming intent within the application.

Step 2: Creating an Alternative Greeting Class

Next, create a new class that provides an unfriendly greeting. This class will be placed in its own file and namespace to demonstrate a different aspect of functionality.

Create a new PHP file named Unfriendly.php within the 'controllers' sub-directory of the 'welcome' module. Add the following code:

namespace UnfriendlyGreeting;

class Greeting {
    function get_greeting($name) {
        return 'Hey, '.$name.', you have a lot of nerve showing your face around here!';

This alternative greeting class uses the UnfriendlyGreeting namespace, offering a stark contrast to the friendly version. Placing it under a different namespace ensures that both functionalities can coexist without conflict, despite sharing the same class name.

Step 3: Using the Namespaced Classes

These classes can now be utilized in other parts of the application. The following example demonstrates their usage within a single controller:

require_once 'Greeting.php';
require_once 'Unfriendly.php';

use FriendlyGreeting\Greeting as FriendlyGreeting;
use UnfriendlyGreeting\Greeting as UnfriendlyGreeting;

class Welcome extends Trongate {

    function test() {
        $name = 'John';
        $friendly = new FriendlyGreeting();
        $unfriendly = new UnfriendlyGreeting();
        echo $friendly->get_greeting($name);
        echo '<hr>';
        echo $unfriendly->get_greeting($name);


By using the use statement with aliases, both classes are accessible under the same controller without any naming conflict, demonstrating the power of namespaces in PHP.

When using namespaces to organize PHP classes, the use statement imports a specific class from a namespace. This maintains clarity and avoids naming conflicts when similar class names are used in different parts of a project.

  • Specifying the Class Name: The \Greeting in use FriendlyGreeting\Greeting as FriendlyGreeting specifies that the Greeting class is being imported from the FriendlyGreeting namespace. The part after the backslash indicates the exact class within that namespace that is being referred to.
  • Alias Usage: By stating as FriendlyGreeting, the class Greeting from the FriendlyGreeting namespace is given a local alias FriendlyGreeting in the file where it's used. This alias helps to distinguish it from other classes named Greeting, such as UnfriendlyGreeting\Greeting, which can be aliased as UnfriendlyGreeting.
  • Practical Example: When instantiating new FriendlyGreeting() or new UnfriendlyGreeting(), PHP knows exactly which class to use because of these use statements, avoiding any confusion with other similarly named classes in different namespaces.


Namespaces are a powerful feature in PHP, essential for maintaining a well-organized codebase and preventing conflicts between similarly named classes across different parts of an application. By using namespaces, classes are neatly packaged and do not interfere with others, even if they share the same name.

Understanding Namespace Conventions in Trongate: Trongate's approach to namespaces aligns with broader PHP practices by adopting PascalCase or camelCase. This supports several key objectives:

  • Alignment with PHP and C: Trongate aims to produce a syntax that resonates with pure PHP and its underlying language, C. Given that C does not have namespaces, Trongate's flexible stance on namespace naming in PHP helps bridge traditional and modern programming paradigms.
  • Standard PHP Practices: In normal operational conditions, namespaces are primarily used when incorporating third-party code from a 'vendor' directory (often managed by Composer and acquired via Packagist). It is common practice in the broader PHP community to use PascalCase for namespaces. This practice enhances integration with the broader ecosystem of PHP packages, where such naming conventions are standard.
  • Practicality and Functionality: Adopting widely recognized naming conventions for namespaces not only aids in clarity and functionality within complex applications but also ensures compatibility and ease of integration with external libraries and frameworks.

Therefore, while Trongate generally recommends snake_case for internal consistency, the use of PascalCase or camelCase for namespaces is a practical exception. This approach underscores Trongate’s commitment to flexibility and pragmatism, supporting developers in creating applications that are both robust and compliant with external PHP standards.